Endourology is a minimally invasive technique available to treat kidney stones. Stones may be extracted or fragmented using tiny instruments through natural body channels such as the urethra, bladder and ureter. Endourology refers to a specific specialty area in urology in which small internal endoscopes and instrumentation are used to see into the urinary tract and perform surgery. Urology is a surgical specialty which deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs. Although urology technically is a "surgical specialty," a urologist must be knowledgeable in other areas including internal medicine, pediatrics, and gynecology because of the wide variety of clinical problems that a urologist deals with.